Books by Gann and Willen

Sources

Several reference works appear in many chapters because they provided background and guided us to research by specialists: A Historical Guide to World Slavery, edited by Seymour Drescher and Stanley L. Engerman (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998); Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, vols. 1 and 2, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller (New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1998); and Chronology of World Slavery, by Junius P. Rodriguez (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999). Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World, by the eminent slavery scholar David Brion Davis, gave us perspective on slavery throughout history and on the birth of abolitionism. We consulted works by many of the major scholars of American and world slavery (Ira Berlin, Moses I. Finley, Henry Louis Gates Jr., Eugene D. Genovese, James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton, Herbert S. Klein, Bernard Lewis, Orlando Patterson, James Walvin, and James Francis Warren, to name only a few). We also referred to the websites Documenting the American South, sponsored by the University Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936–1938, available at the Library of Congress website.

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, sponsored by Emory University and several partners, was our source for statistics on slave shipments from Africa to Europe, North America, and South America. We used figures from the Estimates database, which are higher than the documented figures and come closer to the probable totals.

For images of slaves in Africa and the Americas, we referred frequently to the Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record, a website compiled by Jerome S. Handler and Michael L. Tuite Jr. It is a project of the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and the University of Virginia Library.

 
To Be a Slave

Bok, Francis. Escape from Slavery. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2003. Personal interview with Francis Buk (also known as Bok), July 23, 2009.

 

Chapter 1, Kings, Pharaohs, and Prophets: The Ancient Near East 

Major Sources

Carmichael, Calum. “Bible: An Overview.”   In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 104–107. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

———, “Bible: Biblical Law.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 110–112. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Leprohon, Ronald J. “Egypt: Ancient Egypt.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 280–282. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Loprieno, Antonio. “Slaves.” In The Egyptians, edited by Sergio Donadoni, pp. 185–217. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. Includes both quotations from Egyptian papyri on p. 6 and the quotation from the Adoption Papyrus on p. 7.

Mendelsohn, Isaac. Slavery in the Ancient Near East. New York: Oxford University Press, 1949.

Snell, Daniel C. “Ancient Middle East.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 63–67. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

 

Other Sources

Berman, Joshua A. Created Equal: How the Bible Broke with Ancient Political Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Kramer, Samuel Noah. The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.

Meltzer, Milton. Slavery: A World History. Updated edition. New York: Da Capo Press, 1993.

Mendelsohn, Isaac. “Slavery in the Old Testament.” In The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible: An Illustrated Encyclopedia, vol. 4, pp. 383–391.  New York:  Abingdon Press, 1962.

Mitchell, Stephen. Gilgamesh: A New English Version. New York: Free Press, 2004. Includes quotation on p. 3.

Sacks, Jonathan. Rabbi Jonathan Sacks’s Haggadah: Hebrew and English text with New Essays and Commentary. New York: Continuum, 2006.

Sarna, Nahum. Exploring Exodus: The Origins of Biblical Israel. New York: Schocken, 1996.

Silver, Abba Hillel. Where Judaism Differed. New York: Macmillan, 1956.

Walzer, Michael. Exodus and Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 1985.

 

Chapter 2, Rebellion and Revenge: Ancient Greece and Rome

Major Sources

Finley, Moses I. Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology. Edited by Brent D. Shaw. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 1998.

———. The Ancient Greeks: An Introduction to Their Life and Thought. New York: Viking, 1963.

———. Slavery in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge: W. Heffer, 1968.

Veyne, Paul. The Roman Empire. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1997. Includes quote on p. 16.

 

Other Sources 

Baker, Alan. The Gladiators: The Secret History of Rome’s Warrior Slaves. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2001.

Bradley, K. R. Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire: A Study in Social Control. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.

Byrne, Joseph P. “Greco-Roman Women as Slaves.” In Chronology of World Slavery, edited by Junius P. Rodriguez, pp. 18-19. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999.

Cahill, Thomas. Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: Why the Greeks Matter. New York: Anchor Books, 2003.

Flacelière, Peter. Daily Life in Greece at the Time of Pericles. New York: Macmillan, 1959.

Meltzer, Milton. Slavery: A World History. Updated edition. New York: Da Capo Press, 1993. Includes quote from Philemon on p. 15 and quote from Diodorus Siculus on p. 18.

Winks, Robin W., ed. Slavery: A Comparative Perspective: Readings on Slavery from Ancient Times to the Present. New York: New York University Press, 1972.

Plutarch. Caesar. Translated by John Dryden. The Internet Classics Archive.

 

Chapter 3, Saints and Vikings: Europe in the Middle Ages

Major Sources

Hanson, R. P. C. Life and Writings of the Historical Saint Patrick. New York: Seabury Press, 1983.

Karras, Ruth Mazo. Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.

Origo, Iris. “The Domestic Enemy: The Eastern Slaves in Tuscany in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries.” Speculum: A Journal of Mediaeval Studies, vol. 30, no. 3, July 1955, pp. 321–366.  Includes quotes on pp. 27–30.

Sawyer, Peter, ed. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

 

Other Sources

Adam of Bremen. History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen. Translated by Francis J. Tschan. New York: Columbia University Press, 1959. Includes quote on p. 23.

Bloch, Marc. Feudal Society. Translated by L. A. Manyon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.

Blum, Jerome. Lord and Peasant in Russia: From the Ninth to the Nineteenth Century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1961.

Brower, Daniel, and Susan Layton. “Liberation through Captivity: Nikolai Shipov’s Adventures in the Imperial Borderlands.” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, vol. 6, no. 2, spring 2005, pp. 259–279. Includes the story of Nikolai Shipov on pp. 30–31.

Hall, Richard. World of the Vikings. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2007. Includes the quote on p. 22.

Haywood. John. Encyclopedia of the Viking Age. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2000.

Kolchin, Peter. Unfree Labor: American Slavery and Russian Serfdom. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1987.

MacKay, John. “‘And Hold the Bondman Still’: Biogeography and Utopia in Slave and Serf Narratives.Biography, vol. 25, no. 1, Winter 2002, 110–129. Includes the story of Nikolai Shipov on pp. 30–31.

Montgomery, James E., trans. “Ibn Fadlan and the Russiyah.” Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies, vol. 3, 2000. Includes the story of the sacrifice on pp. 25–26.

Oxenstierna, Count Eric. The Norsemen. Translated and edited by Catherine Hutter. Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society Publishers, 1965.

Patterson, Orlando. Freedom in the Making of Western Culture, vol. 1 of Freedom. New York: Basic Books, 1991.

Rimbert: Life of Anskar, the Apostle of the North, 801–865. With introduction by Charles H. Robinson.

Ritchie, Anna. Loot and Land. BBC “Ancient History in Depth.” Includes quote on p. 22. 

Roesdahl, Else. The Vikings. Translated by Susan M. Margeson and Kirsten Williams. New York: Viking Penguin, 1987.

Stuard, Susan Mosher. “Ancillary Evidence for the Decline of Medieval Slavery.  Past and Present, vol. 149, no. 1, spring 1995, pp. 3–28.

 

Website

The Lay of Rig is available on many websites. See, for example, an edited version by D. L. Ashliman and the translation by Olive Bray.

 

Chapter 4, In the Realm of the Qu’ran: Slavery under Islam

Major Sources

Lewis, Bernard. Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Segal, Ronald. Islam’s Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001.

Toledano, Ehud R. As if Silent and Absent: Bonds of Enslavement in the Islamic Middle East. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.

 

Other Sources

Baepler, Paul, ed. White Slaves, African Masters: An Anthology of American Barbary Captivity Narratives. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. Includes Crewman John Foss’s account of his captivity by Barbary pirates on pp. 34–35.

Davis, David Brion. Slavery and Human Progress. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.

Everett, Susanne. History of Slavery. London: Bison Books, 1978.

Friedman, Ellen G. “Christian Captives at ‘Hard Labor’ in Algiers, 16th–18th Centuries.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies, vol. 13, no. 4, 1980, pp. 616–632.

Furlonge, Nigel D.  “Revisiting the Zanj and Re-Visioning Revolt: Complexities of the Zanj Conflict (868-883 AD).” Negro History Bulletin, vol. 62, no. 4, 1999, pp. 7–14.

Gordon, Murray. Slavery in the Arab World. New York: New Amsterdam Books, 1989.

Hitti, Philip K. The Arabs: A Short History, 2nd rev. paperback ed. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 1970.

Karsh, Efraim. Islamic Imperialism: A History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006.

Lewis, Bernard. The Arabs in History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Meltzer, Milton. Slavery: A World History, Updated edition. New York: Da Capo Press, 1993.

Phillips, William D., Jr. Slavery from Roman Times to the Early Transatlantic Trade. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985.

Toledano, Ehud R. Slavery and Abolition in the Ottoman Middle East. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998.

 

Chapter 5, Caravans, Canoes, and Captives: Africa

Major Sources

Ewald, Janet J. “Africa: East Africa.” In Drescher, Seymour, and Stanley L. Engerman, eds. A Historical Guide to World Slavery, pp. 41–46.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Klein, Martin A. “Africa: West Africa.” In A Historical Guide to World Slavery, edited by Seymour Drescher and Stanley L. Engerman, pp. 32-37. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Mandala, Elias. “Africa:  Central Africa.” In A Historical Guide to World Slavery, edited by Seymour Drescher and Stanley L. Engerman, pp. 37-41.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1998.

Scully, Pamela. “Africa: Southern Africa.” In A Historical Guide to World Slavery, edited by Seymour Drescher and Stanley L. Engerman, pp. 46–50. New York:  Oxford University Press, 1998.

Segal, Ronald. Islam’s Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001.

Thornton, John K. “Africa: An Overview.” In A Historical Guide to World Slavery, edited by Seymour Drescher and Stanley L. Engerman, pp. 27–32. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Wright, Marcia. Strategies of Slaves & Women:  Life Stories from East/Central Africa. Washington, DC: Lilian Barber Press, 1993. Includes the quotations from the narratives of Msatulwa Mwatchitete, on pp. 45–46, and Meli, on pp. 50–51. Used with permission.

 

Other Sources

Curtin, Philip D., ed. Africa Remembered: Narratives by West Africans from the Era of the Slave Trade. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967.

Everett, Susanne. History of Slavery. London: Bison Books, 1978.

Ewald, Janet J. “Slavery in Africa and the Slave Trades from Africa.” The American Historical Review, vol. 97, no. 2, April, 1992, pp. 465–485.

Fisher, H. J. “The Eastern Maghrib and the Central Sudan.” In The Cambridge History of Africa, volume 3, from c. 1050 to c. 1600, edited by Roland Oliver, p. 273. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977. Includes the song on page 43.

Hamdun, Said, and Noel King. Ibn Battuta in Black Africa. London: Rex Collings, 1975.

Hochschild, Adam. King Leopold’s Ghost. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998.

Kennedy, Pagan. Black Livingstone: A True Tale of Adventure in the Nineteenth-Century Congo. New York: Viking, 2002.

Klein, Martin A. “The Wolof and Sereer.” In Slavery in Africa:  Historical and Anthropological Perspectives, edited by Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff, pp. 335–362. Madison:  University of Wisconsin Press, 1977.

Lovejoy, Paul E. Transformations in Slavery:  A History of Slavery in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Mackintosh-Smith, Tim, ed. The Travels of Ibn Battutah. London:  Macmillan, 2002.

Manning, Patrick. “Slavery and African Life.” In Slavery, edited by Stanley Engerman, Seymour Drescher, and Robert Paquette, pp. 413–418. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Miller, Joseph C. “Africa: A Thematic and Synoptic Overview.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 28–34.  New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Röschenthaler, Ute. “Memories of the Slave Trade in the Cross River Region.” Presented at the conference Tales of Slavery: Narratives of Slavery, the Slave Trade and Enslavement in Africa. Toronto: May 20–23, 2009.

Sparks, Randy J. The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 2008.

 

Chapter 6, Explorers, Laborers, Warriors, Chiefs: The Americas

Major Sources

Driver, Harold E. Indians of North America. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Jewitt, John Rodgers. The Adventures of John R. Jewitt Only Survivor of the Crew of the Ship Boston, During a Captivity of Nearly Three Years among the Indians of Nookta Sound, in Vancouver Island. Middletown, CT: Richards, 1815. Available from the HathiTrust Digital Library.

Patterson, Orlando. Freedom in the Making of Western Culture, vol. 1 of Freedom. New York: Basic Books, 1991.

Wilford, John Noble. The Mysterious History of Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legend. New York: Knopf, 1991.

 

Other Sources

Ames, Kenneth M.  “Slaves, Chiefs and Labour on the Northern Northwest Coast.”  World Archaeology, vol. 33, no. 1, June 2001, pp. 1–17.

Beauchamp, W. M. “Iroquois Women.” Journal of American Folklore, vol. 13, no. 49, April–June 1900, pp. 81–91. Includes the quote from the mother on p. 58.

Clendinnen, Inga. “The Cost of Courage in Aztec Society.” Past and Present, vol. 107, no. 1, May 1985, pp. 44–89.

Cook, Noble David. “Starvation and Death in Early Hispaniola.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History, vol. 32, no. 3, winter 2002, pp. 349–386.

Crocitti, John J. “Bartolomé de Las Casas.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 473–474. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Cuello, José. “The Persistence of Indian Slavery and Encomienda in the Northeast of Colonial Mexico, 1577–1723.” Journal of Social History, vol. 21, no. 4, summer 1998, pp. 683–700.

Perdue, Theda. “Clan and Court: Another Look at the Early Cherokee Republic.” American Indian Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 4, autumn 2000, pp. 562–569.

———. Slavery and the Evolution of Cherokee Society, 1540–1866. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979.

Sherman, William H. “Distant Relations: Letters from America, 1492–1677.” The Huntington Library Quarterly, vol. 66, no. 3/4, Studies in the Cultural History of Letter Writing, 2003, pp. 225–245.

Starna, William A., and Ralph Watkins. “Northern Iroquoian Slavery.” Ethnohistory, vol. 38, no. 1, winter 1991, pp. 34–57. Includes the quote from the mother on p. 58.

Website

A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies by Bartolomé de Las Casas is available at the Project Gutenberg website.

 

Chapter 7, The Treacherous Triangle: South America and the Caribbean

Major Sources

Baquaqua, Mahommah Gardo. The Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: His Passage from Slavery to Freedom in Africa and America. Edited by Robin Law and Paul E. Lovejoy. Princeton, N.J. Markus Wiener, 2001. Also see Documenting the American South under Websites, below.

Forster, Elborg, and Robert Forster, eds. and trans. Sugar and Slavery, Family and Race: The Letters and Diary of Pierre Dessalles, Planter in Martinique, 1808–1856. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. Includes the quote from Baquaqua on p. 61.

Harms, Robert. The Diligent: A Voyage Through the Worlds of the Slave Trade. New York: Basic Books, 2002. Includes the surgeon’s quote on page 64.

Klein, Herbert S. African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Price, Richard, and Sally Price, eds. Stedman’s Surinam: Life in an Eighteenth-Century Slave Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991. Includes the statement to the governor on p. 72.

Prince, Mary. “The History of Mary Prince: A West Indian Slave Related by Herself.” In The Classic Slave Narratives, edited by Henry Louis Gates, Jr., pp. 249–316. New York: Signet, 2002. Also see Documenting the American South under Websites, below.

Robin John, Ancona Robin, and Little Ephraim Robin John. Letters from the Rylands Collection at the University of Manchester.

Sparks, Randy J. The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Walvin, James. A Short History of Slavery. New York: Penguin, 2007.

 

Other Sources

Beckles, Hilary McD. “Caribbean Region: English Colonies.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 154–159. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Behrendt, Stephen D. “Crew Mortality in the Transatlantic Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century.” Slavery & Abolition, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 49–71.

Conrad, Robert. “Brazil: Central and Southern Brazil.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 127–129. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Costanzo, Angelo. “The Narrative of Archibald Monteith, a Jamaican Slave.” Callaloo, vol. 13, no. 1, winter 1990, pp. 115–130.

Davis, Natalie Zemon. “Stedman’s Suriname Book in Sweden.” In  Vänskap over gränser: en festskrift till Eva Österberg, edited by Kenneth Johansson and Marie Lindstedt Cronberg. 2007.

Everett, Susanne. History of Slavery. London: Bison Books, 1978.

Garland, Charles, and Herbert S. Klein. “The Allotment of Space for Slaves aboard Eighteenth-Century British Slave Ships.” The William and Mary Quarterly, third series, vol. 42, no. 2, April 1985, pp. 238–248.

Geggus, David. “Caribbean Region: French Colonies.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 159–163. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

———. “Caribbean Region: An Overview.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 146–154. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Handler, Jerome S. “Survivors of the Middle Passage: Life Histories of Enslaved Africans in British America.” Slavery & Abolition, vol. 23, no. 1, 2002, pp. 25–56. Includes the quote from Sibell on p. 63.

Jones, Neil. “The Zong: Legal, Social and Historical Dimensions.”The Journal of Legal History, vol. 28, no. 3, December 2007, p.  283.

Karasch, Mary. “Brazil: An Overview.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 116–125. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Lewis, Andrew. “Martin Dockray and the Zong: a Tribute in the Form of a Chronology.” The Journal of Legal History, vol. 28, no. 3, December 2007, pp. 357–370.

Maciness, Peter.  Bittersweet: The Story of Sugar. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen and Unwin, 2002.

Nishida, Mieko. “Brazil: Northeastern Brazil.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 125–126. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Paley, Ruth. “After Somerset: Mansfield, Slavery, and the Law in England, 1772–1830.” In Law, Crime and English Society 1660–1830, edited by Norma Landau, pp. 46–70. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Phillips, Ulrich B. “A Jamaica Slave Plantation.” American Historical Review, vol. 19, no. 3, April 1914, pp. 543–558.

Pierre, Roland. “Caribbean Religion: The Voodoo Case.” Sociological Analysis, vol. 38, no. 1, 1977, pp. 25–36.

Scarano, Francisco A. “Caribbean Region: Spanish Colonies.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 163–167. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Walvin, James. Slavery and the Slave Trade: A Short Illustrated History. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1983. Includes the advertisement on p. 74.

———.  The Slave Trade. Stroud, UK: Sutton Pocket Histories, 1999.

Warner, Judith Ann. “The Proslavery Argument in Latin America.” In Chronology of World Slavery, edited by Junius P. Rodriguez, pp. 154–155. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1999.

 

Websites

Documenting the American South, under North American Slave Narratives, houses online versions of the Biography of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua and The History of Mary Prince.

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database documents more than 25,000 slaving voyages from 1501 to 1866.

The quote by the Scottish observer on p. 66 is from The Journal of a Lady of Quality; Being the Narrative of a Journey from Scotland to the West Indies, North Carolina, and Portugal, in the Years 1774 to 1776, by Janet Schaw, which is also on the Documenting the American South website.

Report of the Lords of the Committee of the Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantation, London, 1789, describes a British study of obeah.

 

Chapter 8, “The Monster Is Dead!”: British Abolition

Major Sources

Davis, David Brion. Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2005. Includes the quote on Ladies Associations on p. 91, the quote describing Samuel Sharpe’s execution on p. 92, and a lengthy account of the emancipation ceremony in Jamaica.

Schama, Simon. Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution. Toronto: Viking Canada, 2005.

Walvin, James. A Short History of Slavery. London: Penguin, 2007.

 

Other Sources

Blackburn, Robin. The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery: 1776-1848. Verso:  London, 1988.

Equiano, Olaudah. “The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa, the African.” In The Classic Slave Narratives, edited by Henry Louis Gates Jr., pp. 15–247. New York: Signet, 2002. Also see Documenting the American South under Websites, below.

Finkelman, Paul. “Abolition and Antislavery Movements: Meaning of the Terms.”  In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller pp. 1–3. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Patterson, Orlando. “Paul, Slavery and Freedom.” Semeia, vol. 83/84, 1998, pp. 263–279.

Temperley, Howard R. “Abolition and Antislavery Movements: Great Britain.”In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, eds., pp. 7–10. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Walvin, James. “Abolition and Antislavery Movements: Introduction and Overview.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 3–4. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

 

Websites

The online Library and Quaker Centre at the Quakers in Britain website provides articles, documents, and pictures related to the group’s work against slavery. Links to the articles “Early colonial Quakers protest against slavery” and “Quaker protests against slavery in the 17th century” appear under Quakers and the Abolition of the Slave Trade.

The biographies of many British abolitionists are on the Abolition Project website. Excerpts from Thomas Clarkson’s diary can be found under “Sources” at this site.

Thomas Clarkson’s “An Essay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species, particularly the African” can be found at the Project Gutenberg website.

Documenting the American South, under North American Slave Narratives, houses the Narrative of the Enslavement of Ottobah Cugoano, a Native of Africa; published by himself, in the Year 1787 and  The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa, the African.

 

Chapter 9, In the Land of Liberty: North America

Major Sources

Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1998. Includes the appeal from Massachusetts slaves that “We have no Property” on p. 100. 

Davis, David Brion. Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Genovese, Eugene D. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Random House, 1974. Includes the quotes from the Virginia owner and Charles Grandy on p. 108. 

Horton, James Oliver, and Lois E. Horton.  Slavery and the Making of America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Includes the story of Quasho on p. 96.

Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl Written by Herself. Edited by Jean Fagan Yellin. Cambridge, MA: Harvard College, 1987. Also see Documenting the American South under Websites, below.

Lester, Julius. To Be a Slave. New York: Dial Books, 1968.

Northup, Solomon. Twelve Years a Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northup a Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841, and Rescued in 1853, From a Cotton Plantation near the Red River in Louisiana. Auburn: Derby and Miller, 1853. Also see Documenting the American South under Websites, below.

Smith, Venture. A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, a Native of Africa, But Resident above Sixty Years in the United States of America. Related by Himself. New-London: C. Holt, 1798. Also see Documenting the American South under Websites, below.

Stewart, James Brewer. Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.

Wilkins, Roger. Jefferson’s Pillow: The Founding Fathers and the Dilemma of Black Patriotism. Boston: Beacon Press, 2001.

 

Other Sources
Ball, Charles. Fifty Years in Chains; or, The Life of an American Slave. New York: H. Dayton, 1850. Also see Documenting the American South under Websites, below.

Berlin, Ira, Marc Favreau, and Steven F. Miller, eds. Remembering Slavery: African Americans Talk About Their Personal Experiences of Slavery and Freedom. New York: New Press, 1998.

Berlin, Ira, and Leslie M. Harris. Slavery in New York. New York: The New Press, 2005.

Brown, William Wells. Narrative of William W. Brown, a Fugitive Slave, Written By Himself. Boston: Anti-Slavery Office, 1847. Also see Documenting the American South under Websites, below.

Clinton, Catherine. Fanny Kemble’s Civil Wars. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000. 

Desrochers, Robert E., Jr. “‘Not Fade Away’: The Narrative of Venture Smith, an African American in the Early Republic.”  Journal of American History, vol. 84, no. 1, June 1997, pp. 40–66.

Dickinson, John. Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, to the Inhabitants of the British Colonies. New York: Outlook Company, 1903. Includes the colonist’s quote on p. 100.

Douglass, Frederick. The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, Written by Himself: His early life as a slave, his escape from bondage, and his complete history. Edited by Rayford W. Logan. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2003. (Originally published 1892.) Also see Documenting the American South under Websites, below.

Hartz, Louis. “Otis and Anti-Slavery Doctrine.” New England Quarterly, vol. 12 no. 4, December 1939, pp. 745–747.

Kemble, Frances Anne. Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation, 1838–1839. Online at Project Gutenberg.

“Sarah Kemble Knight: Remarks on ‘this whole Colony of Connecticut.’” From the National Humanities Center Resources Toolbox. First published in 1825 as The Journal of Madam Knight, ed. Thomas Dwight. Includes quote from the widow on p. 95.

Lowance, Mason I. Against Slavery: An Abolitionist Reader. New York: Penguin, 2000. 

Reid, Ira De A. “The John Canoe Festival: A New World Africanism.” Phylon (1940-1956), vol. 3, no. 4, fourth quarter, 1942, pp. 349–346.

Roberts, James. The Narrative of James Roberts, a Soldier Under Gen. Washington in the Revolutionary War, and Under Gen. Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans, in the War of 1812. Chicago: Author, 1858. Also see Documenting the American South under Websites, below.

Schama, Simon. Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution. Toronto: Viking Canada, 2005.

Sterling, Dorothy, ed. We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century. New York: W. W. Norton, 1984.

Steward, Austin. Twenty-two Years a Slave and Forty Years a Freeman. Rochester, NY: William Alling, 1857. Also see Documenting the American South under Websites, below.

Stewart, James. “Abolition and Antislavery Movements: United States.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 11–19. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998. 

Thornton, John K. “African Dimensions of the Stono Rebellion.” American Historical Review, vol. 96, no. 4, October 1991, pp. 1101–1113.

Walvin, James. A Short History of Slavery. New York: Penguin, 2007. Includes the quote about rice cultivation on p. 97. 

Waters, John J. The Otis Family in Provincial and Revolutionary Massachusetts. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.

Wax, Darold D. “‘The Great Risque We Run’: The Aftermath of Slave Rebellion at Stono, South Carolina, 1739-1745.” Journal of Negro History, vol. 67, no. 2, summer 1982, pp. 136–147.

White, Shane. “‘It Was a Proud Day’: African Americans, Festivals, and Parades in the North, 1741–1834.” Journal of American History, vol. 81, no. 1, June 1994, pp. 13–50.

 

Websites

The Africans in America website offers a survey of African-American history from 1450 to the end of the Civil War.

Documenting the American South, under North American Slave Narratives, houses the first-person accounts by Charles Ball, William Wells Brown, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Jacobs, Solomon Northup, James Roberts, Venture Smith (Broteer), and Austin Steward.

Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers Project 1936–1938, a Library of Congress website, provides insight into slaves’ lives through its slave narratives, offered in audio recordings and print transcripts.

The Massachusetts Historical Society provides information on the case of Elizabeth Freeman at its site African Americans and the End of Slavery in Massachusetts.

The South Carolina Slave Code is online.

U.S. National Archives provides the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and other founding documents.

 

Chapter 10, Civil War, Civil Rights: The United States 

Major Sources

Davis, David Brion. Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Douglass, Frederick, The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, Written by Himself: His early life as a slave, his escape from bondage, and his complete history. Edited by Rayford W. Logan. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2003. (Originally published 1892.) Also see Documenting the American South under Websites, below.

Horton, James Oliver, and Lois E. Horton.  Slavery and the Making of America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl Written by Herself. Edited by Jean Fagan Yellin. Cambridge, MA: Harvard College, 1987. Also see Documenting the American South under Websites, below.

Lester, Julius. To Be a Slave. New York: Dial Books, 1968. Includes quote by Anna Woods on p. 126.

Stewart, James Brewer. Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.

 

Other Sources

Berlin, Ira, and Leslie M. Harris. Slavery in New York. New York: The New Press, 2005.

Chowder, Ken. “The Father of American Terrorism.” American Heritage Magazine, vol. 51, no. 1, February/March 2000. Available online.

Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A. Moss, Jr. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro America, Sixth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988.

Frost, Karolyn Smardz. I’ve Got a Home in Glory Land: A Lost Tale of the Underground Railroad. Toronto: Thomas Allen, 2007. Includes an exhaustive account of Thornton and Lucie Blackburn’s escape from Detroit to Toronto.

The Hero of the Planter,” The New York Times, Oct. 3, 1862.

Lowance, Mason I. Against Slavery: An Abolitionist Reader. New York: Penguin, 2000.

McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass. New York: W. W. Norton,  1991.

Oakes, James. The Radical and the Republican: Frederick Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, and the Triumph of Antislavery Politics. New York: W. W. Norton,  2007.

Rose, Willie Lee, ed. A Documentary History of Slavery in North America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. 

Schama, Simon. Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution. Toronto: Viking Canada, 2005.

“The Steamer Planter and Her Captor,” Harpers Weekly, June 14, 1862.

Sterling, Dorothy, ed. We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century. New York: W. W. Norton, 1984.

Stewart, James. “Abolition and Antislavery Movements: United States.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 11-19. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Tom’s Cabin. New York: Modern Library, 1996.

Williams, Carolyn. “The Female Antislavery Movement: Fighting against Racial Prejudice and Promoting Women’s Rights in Antebellum America.” In The Abolitionist Sisterhood: Women’s Political Culture in Antebellum America, edited by Jean Fagan Yellin and John C. Van Horne, pp. 159–177. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994.

Wills, Garry. Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Winship, Michael, “Uncle Tom’s Cabin: History of the Book in the 19th-Century United States,” at the Uncle Tom’s Cabin & American Culture Project at the University of Virginia.

Woodward, C. Vann, ed. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981.

 

Websites

The Africans in America website offers a survey of African-American history from 1450 to the end of the Civil War.

The African-American Mosaic, a website of the Library of Congress, posts the resource guide accompanying a July 5, 2005, exhibit. It includes background information on slavery and abolition and narratives by former slaves.

Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers Project 1936–1938, a Library of Congress website, provides insight into slaves’ lives through its slave narratives, offered in audio recordings and print transcripts.

The article “Black Dispatches: Black American Contributions to Union Intelligence During the Civil Warappears on the website of the Central Intelligence Agency of the U.S. government.

Documenting the American South, under North American Slave Narratives, houses the slave narratives for Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs.

Famous American Trials: Amistad Trials, 1839-1840 provides primary documents, including contemporary newspaper accounts, of the Amistad case. The article “Stamped With Glory: Lewis Tappan and the Africans of the Amistad,” an account of the trial by Doug Linder, lacks citations, though a note says footnotes are forthcoming, but it provides extensive detail and a useful chronology.

Excerpts from William Lloyd Garrison’s newspaper The Liberator and summaries of many articles can be consulted at The Liberator Files website, compiled by Horace Seldon.

The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History offers background information on the antislavery movement.

The U.S. National Archives provides information on the Emancipation Proclamation and the U.S. Constitution.

 

Chapter 11, Blackbirders, Coolies, and Slave Girls: Asia and the Southern Pacific

Major Sources

Chakravarti, Uma. “Of Dasas and Karmakaras: Servile Labour in Ancient India.” In Chains of Servitude: Bondage and Slavery in India, edited by Utsa Patnaik and Manjari Dingwaney, pp. 35–69. Madras, India: Sangam Books: 1985.

Chanana, Dev Raj. Slavery in Ancient India, as Depicted in Pali and Sanskrit Texts.  New Delhi: People’s Publishing House, 1960.

Chatterjee, Indrani. “Indian Subcontinent.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 425–427. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Horne, Gerald. White Pacific: U.S. Imperialism and Black Slavery in the South Seas after the Civil War. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007. Includes the story of Achilles Underwood on p. 139.

Jaschok, Maria. Concubines and Bondservants: A Social History. London; [Atlantic Highlands,] NJ: Zed Books, 1988. Includes “Deed for Sale of a Daughter, 1927” on p. 143.

Jaschok, Maria, and Suzanne Miers, eds. Women and Chinese Patriarchy: Submission, Servitude and Escape. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1994.

Jones. Life and Adventure in the South Pacific by a Roving Printer. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1861. Includes the quotation describing Chinese Coolies on p. 138. Available online from Hathitrust.

Jones, Eric A. “Fugitive Women: Slavery and Social Change in Early Modern Southeast Asia.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, June 1, 2007. Includes the story of Christina on p. 133.

Lim, Janet. Sold for Silver, an Autobiography. London: Collins, 1958. Includes the quotations on p. 141.

Margulis, Jennifer. “Slavery in Southeast Asia.” Chronology of World Slavery, edited by Junius P. Rodriguez, pp. 97–98. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 1999.

Milner, Murray, Jr. “Caste Systems.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 168–169. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Mortensen, Reid. “Slaving in Australian Courts: Blackbirding Cases, 1869-1871.” Journal of South Pacific Law, vol. 4, 2000.

Nowak, Barbara S., and Singan Knən Muntil. “Btsisi’, Blandas, and Malays: Ethnicity and Identity in the Malay Peninsula Based on Btsisi’ Folklore and Ethnohistory.” Asian Folklore Studies, vol. 63, 2004, pp. 303–323. Includes the quotation describing a Malay slave raid on p. 132.

Palmer, George. Kidnapping in the South Seas: Being a Narrative of a Three Months’ Cruise of H.M.S. Rosario. Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1871. Includes the story of the Daphne on pp. 138–139. 

Patnaik, Utsa. “Asia: South Asia.” In Drescher, Seymour, and Stanley L. Engerman, eds. A Historical Guide to World Slavery, pp. 78–80.  New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Pearn, John Helmsley. “Courage and Curiosity: Surgeon Explorers in Australia and New Zealand. Part 1: Discovery and Bridgehead.” ANZ Journal of Surgery, vol. 62, no. 3, 1992, pp. 219–234.

Pieters, C. Z. “Adventures of C. Z. Pieters Among the Pirates of Magindanao.” Journal of the Indian Archipelago and East Asia, edited by James Richardson Logan, vol. 2, pp. 301–312.  

Pulleyblank, E. G., “The Origins and Nature of Chattel Slavery in China.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, vol. 1, no. 2, April, 1958, pp. 185–220.

Reid, Anthony. “Notes on Slavery and Bondage in Southeast Asian History.” In Slavery, Bondage and Dependency in Southeast Asia, edited by Anthony Reid, pp. 2–33. Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1983.

Schottenhammer, Angela. “Slaves and Forms of Slavery in Late Imperial China (Seventeenth to Early Twentieth Centuries).” In Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia, edited by Gwyn Campbell, pp. 142–152. London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2004.

Simon, Lady Kathleen. Slavery. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1929.

Wang, Xi. “China.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 179–180. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Ward, Kerry, and Nigel Worden. “Indonesia.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 427–428. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Warren, James P. “Southeast Asia.” In Drescher, Seymour, and Stanley L. Engerman, eds. A Historical Guide to World Slavery, pp. 80–87. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

———. Iranun and Balangingi: Globalization, Maritime Raiding and the Birth of Ethnicity. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 2002. Includes the story of C. Z. Pieters. Includes the story of C. Z. Pieters and the quote on p. 134. 

———. Pirates, Prostitutes, and Pullers: Explorations in the Ethnohistory and Social History of Southeast Asia. Crawley: University of Western Australia Press, 2007. Includes the Malay man’s quote on p. 136. 

———. “Slave Markets and Exchange in the Malay World: The Sulu Sultinate, 1770–1878.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, vol. 8, no. 2, September 1977, pp. 162–175.

———. “Who Were the Balangingi Samal? Slave Raiding and Ethnogenesis in Nineteenth-Century Sulu.” Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 37, no. 3, May 1978, pp. 477–490.

Worden, Nigel, and Kerry Ward, “Slave Trade: Southeast Asia.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 849–851. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Xiarong, Han. “Slave Trade: China,” and “Slave Trade: Coolie Trade.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 846–849. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

 

Other Sources

Chappell, David A. “Blackbirding in the Pacific Islands.” In Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery, edited by Paul Finkelman and Joseph C. Miller, pp. 113–115. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Elmslie, Ronald. “The Colonial Career of James Patrick Murray.” ANZ Journal of Surgery, vol. 49, no. 1, February 1979, 154–162.

Patterson, Orlando. Slavery and Social Death. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982.

Segal, Ronald. Islam’s Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001.

Stewart, P. J. “New Zealand and the Pacific Labor Traffic, 1870–1874.” The Pacific Historical Review, vol. 30, no. 1, Feb. 1961, 47–59.

 

Website

A translation of the story of the slave girl Kali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu is at the Access to Insight website on the webpage “Kakacupama Sutta: The Simile of the Saw.”

 

Chapter 12, Slavery Is Not History: The World Today 

Major Sources

Bales, Kevin. Disposable People:  New Slavery in the Global Economy. Berkeley, CA:  University of California Press, 2000.

———. Ending Slavery:  How We Free Today’s Slaves. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2007.

Sage, Jesse, and Liora Kasten, eds. Enslaved: True Stories of Modern Day Slavery.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Includes information about Beatrice Fernando on pp. 153­–154.

 

Other Sources

Anti-Slavery International. The Cocoa Industry in West Africa: A History of Exploitation, 2004.

———. Information on Mauritania, Compliance with ILO Convention No.29 on Forced Labour (ratified in 1961), July 2008.

Bales, Kevin. New Slavery: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2000.

Bales, Kevin, and Zoe Trodd. To Plead Our Own Cause: Personal Stories by Today’s Slaves. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2008. Includes Sam Lu’s account of his ordeal in the laogai system on pp. 147–148.

Beah, Ishmael. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Child Soldier. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007.

Bowe, John. “Annals of Labor: Nobodies.” The New Yorker, April 21, 2003.

Callimachi, Rukmini. “Child Maid Trafficking Spreads from Africa to US.” Huffington Post, Dec. 29, 2008.

Coalition of Immokalee Workers. Materials in Support of the Testimony of the Coalition of Immokalee Workers Before the Inter-American Commission, March 3, 2005. Includes quotes from Julia Gabriel on pp. 155 and 156.

Cotton, Samuel. Silent Terror: A Journey Into Contemporary African Slavery. New York: Writers and Readers Publishing, 1998.

Domestic Human Trafficking—An Internal Issue, December 2008. U.S. Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center.

Dowd, Patrick S. “Nazi Slavery.” In A Historical Guide to World Slavery, edited by Seymour Drescher and Stanley L. Engerman, pp. 297–300. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Estabrook, Barry. “Politics of the Plate: Florida’s Slave Trade.” Gourmet, March 2, 2009.

Fernando, Beatrice. Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives, March 9, 2005. Includes her quotes on pp. 153­–154.

Hardesty, Greg. “Domestic Prisoner Prevails.” Orange County Register, October 24, 2006.

———. “A Loving Home at Last.” Orange County Register, May 23, 2007.

Indian Claims Commission Findings of Fact, June 9, 1978, and Interlocutory Order, June 9, 1978.

International Cocoa Initiative: A Progress Report, 2009. [Link A Progress Report to http://www.cocoainitiative.org/images/stories/pdf/ici_progress_report.pdf ]

Jones, Dorothy Knee. A Century of Servitude: Pribilof Aleuts Under U.S. Rule. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1980. Includes the quotes from the government agent and Fredericka Martin on p. 145.  

Karay, Felicja, Death Comes in Yellow: Skarzysko-Kamienna Slave Labor Camp. Translated by Sara Kitai. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1996.

Kielburger, Craig, Free the Children: Special 10th Anniversary Edition. Toronto: Free the Children, 2005.

Kuklin, Susan. Iqbal Masih and the Crusaders Against Child Slavery, 1st edition. New York: H. Holt,  1998.

LaFraniere, Sharon. “Africa’s World of Forced Labor, in a 6-Year-Old’s Eyes.” New York Times, October 29, 2006.

Laogai Research Foundation. Laogai Handbook 2007-2008. Washington, DC: Author, 2008. 

“Slaves of the Fur Seal Harvest.” Cascadia Times, Winter 2005.

Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. Translated by Max Hayward and Ronald Hingley. New York: Bantam Books, 1990.

Wimberg, Ellen M. “Forced Labor: Soviet Union.” In A Historical Guide to World Slavery, edited by Seymour Drescher and Stanley L. Engerman, pp. 210–212.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1998.

Zagier, Alan Scher. “Laborers-turned-activists win RFK Human Rights Award,” Boston.com, November 19, 2003.

 

Websites

Information about the Pribilof Islands (see pp. 144–145), including an article by Helen D. Corbett and G. S. Winer, is available on the Amiq Institute website.

The website for the Laogai Research Foundation provide information about Chinese laogai prison camps, discussed on pp. 147–148.

An interview with Chinese dissident and founder of the Laogai Research Foundation, Harry Wu, can be located at the website Speak Truth to Power. [Link Speak Truth to Power to www.speaktruth.org/defend/profiles/profile_49.asp ]

Forced labor in North Korea is exposed at the website of the Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. The Executive Summary is on pp. 10–14. [Link Committee name to  http://www.hrnk.org/download/The%20Hidden%20Gulag.pdf ]

The story of Luis Alberto Ferrándiz Alfaro and his wife, on p. 149, can be found in chapter 10, “Labor Rights,” in the report “Cuba’s Repressive Machinery: Human Rights Forty Years After the Revolution,” 1999, at the website of Human Rights Watch.

More information about child soldiers, described on pp. 149-150, is available from three organizations that are working to end the practice throughout the world. At the UNICEF website, on the page Children and Armed Conflict, the organization offers protocols and guidelines on the proper use of children, posts a fact sheet, defines child soldiers, and offers links to other organizations, including Human Rights Watch and the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers.  

The website for Free the Children offers information about child slavery throughout the world.

The International Cocoa Initiative’s website provides details about its mandate and ongoing programs in preventing slave labor on cocoa farms, which is described on pp. 150–152.

The organizations Challenging Heights and Free the Slaves provide information about James Kofi Annan, whose story is on pp. 150–151. An interview with James Kofi Annan is on the website of Essence magazine.

The Coalition for Immokalee Workers’ website provides information about the organization, described on p. 156. Further information about the Coalition, including a transcript of testimony before the U.S. Congress by Lucas Benitez on October 28, 2004, is available at the Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights website.

The U.S. Department of State’s annual Trafficking in Persons Report offers information on the problem throughout the world. The State Department’s 2009 report was helpful in this chapter.

 

To Be Free

Bok, Francis. Escape from Slavery. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2003.

Personal interview with Francis Buk (also known as Bok), July 23, 2009.

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